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Gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) modifies preferences towards less sweet and fatty foods, but the underlying mechanism is not known. This project aimed to investigate the role of the exaggerated satiety gut hormone release on appetitive reward of sweet and fatty food after RYGB. We hypothesized that the modification of gut hormones induced by the surgery decreases the appetitive behaviour in RYGB patients. A double randomised blind controlled trial was carried out to compare the effect of subcutaneous injections of somatostatin analogue (octreotide) which blocks satiety gut hormone responses, and saline (control) on the appetitive reward value of sweet-fat candies in patients that have undergone RYGB and in normal weight subjects. Results showed that the appetitive behaviour for candy rewards was significantly increased when RYGB patients had previously received a subcutaneous injection of somatostatin as compared to a saline injection. This somatostatin-induced increase in appetitive behaviour for chocolate reward was not observed in normal weight control subjects. These results suggest that gut hormones may play a physiological role in the reduction of the appetitive reward value of sweet/fatty taste after RYGB. The understanding of this mechanism may lead to effective non-surgical treatments that aim to promote healthier food preferences in obesity.
Recent studies carried out in animal models have shown that taste perception, food preferences and reward can be influenced by hormones participating in the control of energy homeostasis (leptin, ghrelin, insulin, GLP-1). However, little is known about the impact of these hormones on human food behaviour. My research aims to understand the link between taste perception, food preferences, food behaviour and gut hormones/metabolites in humans, in relation with metabolic pathologies such as obesity and diabetes. Understanding further in-depth elucidation of these mechanisms would allow the management of food behaviour and weight loss in patients with obesity and/or diabetes. After having been trained on food technology, nutrition and sensory perception in Polytech’Montpellier and AgroSup Dijon, I have carried out a PhD at the Centre for taste and feeding behaviour (CSGA) in Dijon (2006-2009). My PhD focused on the impact of alcohol reduction on the sensory perception of wines and their acceptability by consumers and was co-directed by Pascal Schlich and Marc Danzart. I was recruited as a researcher at CSGA by INRA after my PhD, in order to implement studies about sensory perception and food behaviour in relation to pathologies. As part of my research project at CSGA, I have spent 10 months (2012/2013) at University College Dublin with Carel le Roux to gain knowledge and experience on the physiopathology of obesity and to study an interesting model of gut hormone- induced food behaviour in humans i.e. obese patients that have had a gastric bypass surgery.
Brondel L, Jacquin A, Meillon S, Pénicaud, L., 2013. Taste: Physiology, roles and dysfunction. Nutrition Clinique et Métabolisme, 27(3): 123-133. Doi: 10.1016/j. nupar.2013.06.002.
Meillon S, Miras A, Le Roux C., 2013. Gastric by-pass surgery alters food preferences through the changes in the perception of taste. Clinical Practice 10 (4): 471-479.
Meillon S, Thomas A, Pénicaud L, Brondel L., 2013. Sensory-specific satiety for a food is unaffected by the ad libitum intake of other foods during a meal. Is SSS subject to dishabituation? Appetite 63: 112-118.
Pénicaud L, Meillon S, Brondel L., 2012. Leptin and the central control of feeding behavior. Biochimie 94(10):2069-2074.