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Antoine Fruleux Modulation of tissue growth heterogeneity by responses to mechanical stress"

Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, RDP, France

Modulation of tissue growth heterogeneity by responses to mechanical stress (scientific report)



Annual meeting: 2019

Fields-Topics: P2 Tissue and Individual,P6 Applied Maths

Type of talk: Fellows Speed Presentation

Modulation of tissue growth heterogeneity by responses to mechanical stress (scientific report)

Biography

Graduated from a masters of theoretical physics, I oriented my research toward statistical physics entering in contact with Ken Sekimoto at the Ecole Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielle (ESPCI) to work on a set of microscopic objects called "Brownian Ratchet" and to find an unifying physical mechanism at play in this class of system. Afterward, I studied the collective behavior of the amoeba Dictyostelium Discoideum in its migration stage, with a view to enlighten how mechanical signals may allow the sensing of the external medium by individuals inside a cell aggregate and improve the locomotive action of those cells. I then started a post-doc with Rhoda Hawkins at The University of Sheffield. I proposed a simplistic model to understand how the cytoskeleton surrounding the nucleus is influenced by nuclear properties and its coupling to the extracellular medium. In Arezki Boudaoud’s team at ENS Lyon, I now find a stimulating work environment, surrounded by experimentalists as well as theoreticians.

Abstract

Modulation of tissue growth heterogeneity by responses to mechanical stress (scientific report)

The two hands of most humans almost superimpose. Similarly, flowers of an individual plant have similar shapes and sizes. This is in striking contrast with growth and deformation of cells during organ morphogenesis, which feature considerable variations in space and in time, raising the question of how organs and organisms reach well-defined size and shape. In order to link cell and organ scales, we built a theoretical model of growing tissue with fibre-like structural elements that may account for the plant cell wall or animal cytoskeleton or extracellular matrix [1]. We made two important predictions. First, growth fluctuations of two cells in the tissue are predicted to be correlated, even if the two cells are separated by a distance comparable to the system size. Second, the response of fibres to growth-induced mechanical stress may enhance or buffer cellular variability of growth, making it possible to modulate the robustness of morphogenesis.
I will present in more details the results of the model we did to reveal how tissue response to mechanical signals controls robustness in development. I’ll also conclude in explaining how these results can be used to investigate the biological mechanisms at play in the regulation of cellular variability.

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